Felt Fabrics



felt fabrics

Felting, Fulling, or Boiled Wool?

To ignore one of the basic knitting commandments, “Thou shalt not put wool into hot water” is to risk suffering the dreaded consequence of such action – very small, very stiff, little sweaters into which no family member would ever want to grow. But approaching the hot water as friend not foe, affords an opportunity to enjoy a wonderful new perspective on rows of knit and purl stitches. As a distinct change of texture and appearance results from the felting process, simple stocking stitch knitting can be magically transformed all without knowledge of complicated knitting technique.

Felt is a warm, windproof fabric that despite its matted texture remains remarkably lightweight and soft to the touch. To produce a felt fabric, the basic raw material is always the same but the production method can vary. The raw material that is common to all methods is a protein fiber derived from an animal source, most often wool. Other protein fibers such as mohair, angora, alpaca, and some furs can also be successfully felted. Why only animal fibers? It is because these fibers have a unique surface structure which consists of overlapping scales. These scales in reaction to being plunged into hot water, open up and latch on to each other creating new formations. This interlocking process is further aided by rubbing the scales together through some form of agitation such as kneading by hand or the action of a washing machine. Further scale mixing is achieved by making the scales slippery with the aid of a sudsy, soapy solution. Once these scales have found their new positions on the surface of the fabric, there is no going back. These newly-positioned scales remain locked together in their latest relationships and the happy result is felt.

“Felting” is the term most often used to define the transformation of a protein fiber into this warm and wonderful fabric. In the strictest sense, felting describes the procedure of taking batts of wool fleece (raw wool that has not yet been spun into yarn), adding hot, soapy water and kneading the wool batt until the fiber scales interlock. The word “filz” is found in Old High German. This language was in use prior to the 12th century, an indication that when felting today we are continuing to explore a very ancient craft.

“Fulling” is the process of producing felt fabric from animal fiber yarn that has already been woven or knitted. Fulling takes the woven or knitted fabric through the process of hot water and agitation in order to facilitate shrinkage and create felted fabric. In the Middle Ages, “fullers” were textile workers who used Fuller’s Earth, a highly adsorptive clay that removed grease and oils from the woven cloth. The agitation of the cleansing action would shrink and matt the fibers creating a fabric that would not unravel. The term fulling stems from “fullare”, a Medieval Latin word meaning “to walk on or trample”. This process emphasizes the agitation that is required in coaxing those fiber scales to intertwine. Today, it is more common to see Fuller’s Earth used as an ingredient in a cosmetic face mask, where it sets its shrinking powers to other tasks.

“Boiled wool” is another descriptive term for felted cloth. It is the characteristic fabric produced in Austria and used to fashion chic Tyrolean jackets embellished with braid binding and pewter buttons. Again, the basic raw material is wool yarn. The process is the same as fulling but completed on an industrial level in order to facilitate the handling of larger quantities. Computerized controls finely tune water temperature levels and agitation strength in order to produce a consistent result. The yarn is first dyed, then knit and shrunk without the aid of chemicals. This process produces felt fabric available by the yard, ready for cutting into pattern pieces to be assembled into garments.

Allow yourself time to experiment with the felting process and how the knitted yarn reacts. Knit test samples of stocking stitch in a pure wool yarn. One caution must be observed. Do not use a wool yarn that has been processed as a superwash yarn, in other words a yarn that can be machine-washed without fear of shrinkage. Since it is shrinkage that is the goal in felting, these yarns are not suitable for felting projects. Knit a number of samples, perhaps in different yarn weights and colors, while making note of the knitted measurements of each. Place these samples in the hot water cycle of the washing machine, removing after the rinse and spin dry cycles. Square up the edges of the samples and allow to dry flat. Measure the samples again and compare to the original measurements. If felting has taken place, it is not only indicated by the change of measurements but in the texture of the fabric. Holding up the felted fabric sample to a strong light, one should barely be able to distinguish the grid of stitches and rows. The felted sample should be very matted and if you cut the knitting, it will not unravel. Notice that the knitting remains soft and lightweight, not stiff and harsh.

If you have moved on to transforming your hand knitting into a felted garment, you may think that is has gone through the most vigorous and tortured wash that knitted yarn could ever endure. Now and forever more, you assume that you can throw that felted garment into the hot wash cycle. Treat your felted garment with “wool rules”. Hand wash using a mild soap or wool detergent in lukewarm water and do not rub or leave to soak as further felting may occur. After thorough rinsing, dry flat. Felted handknitting can always be improved with brushing and even a light pressing with a warm iron to produce a smoother surface appearance. If you are storing felted garments for an extended length of time, be sure to tuck a moth repellent inside the garment.

These are the basic guidelines to start you down the felted path. If you take the plunge and experiment with different yarn weights, brands and colors, you will increase your knowledge of what really happens when a particular yarn meets hot water. After all, the knitting is easy and the results can be spectacular.

About the Author

Maddy Cranley is a professional knitwear designer, who has created exclusive designs for knitting and craft magazines, authored and published three books on the subject of creating felt garments and projects from hand knitting, and produces an ever-growing line of maddy laine and maddy baby hand knitting patterns. For additional information, see http://www.maddycraft.com

Fashion & Style Tips : Cleaning Felt Fabric



16-Lb Flywheel Elliptical Trainer by Sunny Health & Fitness


16-Lb Flywheel Elliptical Trainer by Sunny Health & Fitness


$156.27


SNF1331: Features: -16 lbs Flywheel delivers stability and riding momentum. -Dual action handlebars, swing and fixed mode positions. -Felt fabric brake pad system allows for various tension levels. -Smooth chain driven mechanism. -Large anti-slip pedals for safety and comfort. -LCD displays time, speed, distance, calories and scan. Finish: -Grey. Material: -Metal/Plastic. User Weight Capacity: -220 Pounds. Dimensions: Overall Height – Top to Bottom: -60.3. Overall Width – Side to Side: -25.6. Overall Depth – Front to Back: -33. Overall Product Weight: -60 lbs.

2 Fabric Felt Sheets Thick Pad Arts Crafts Jewelry Crafting Clean Wipe Car Cloth


2 Fabric Felt Sheets Thick Pad Arts Crafts Jewelry Crafting Clean Wipe Car Cloth


$6.99


2 Felt Single Sheet Orange Polyester Non woven 19.5 X 28 Fabric DIY Craft New! The Orange felt measures: 19.5 W X 28 H is approximately 1 mm thick and is wonderful for all levels of crafting Made from polyester, the soft felt offers great durability for ease of manipulation. Make arts and craft fun, easy for cutting and gluing without unraveling or creasing. Perfect for cutting into shapes, making costumes, decorations, bulletin board backdrops and almost anything you can think of. Perfect for craft projects easy to iron, glue or sew together and safe for kids. This product can be used for all their crafty school projects.

3M 1000NF Adhesive, 1 gal, Purple, Water Based


3M 1000NF Adhesive, 1 gal, Purple, Water Based


$97.78


Adhesive, Water Based, Size 1 gal, Purple, Bonding Range 1 to 10 min, Application Time 30 sec, VOC Content 0g/L, Viscosity 400 to 1100 cps, Specific Gravity 1, Substrates Fabric, Felt, Cork and Fibrous Glass, Fiberglass Insulation, Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic, Flexible Foam (Latex, Urethane), High Pressure Laminate, Metal, Paper and Cardboard, Plastics (Polyolefin and Thermoplastic Elastomers), Polyolefin Foam, Polystyrene Foam, Vinyl Plasticized, Wood and Hardboard

3M 3792LMQ Hot Melt Adhesive, Clear, 5/8 x 8 In, PK165


3M 3792LMQ Hot Melt Adhesive, Clear, 5/8 x 8 In, PK165


$179.04


Hot Melt Glue Stick, Clear, Diameter 5/8 In, Length 8 In, For Use With Mfr. No. POLYGUN EC Applicator, Temp. Range 0 to 140 Degrees F, Begins to Harden 40 sec, Full Cure Not Specified, Peel Strength 13 psi, Shear Strength 350 psi, Tensile Strength 547 psi, Substrates Paper, Polyolefin, Fabric, Felt, Rigid Breadboard, ABS, PVC, Characteristics High Performance, Provides Fast and Strong Bonds to a Wide Variety of Materials, Remains Flexible, Economical and Efficient

3M 3792LMTC Hot Melt Adhesive, Clear, 5/8 x 2 In, PK605


3M 3792LMTC Hot Melt Adhesive, Clear, 5/8 x 2 In, PK605


$141.38


Hot Melt Glue Stick, Clear, Diameter 5/8 In, Length 2 In, For Use With Mfr. No. POLYGUN LT, Temp. Range 0 to 140 Degrees F, Begins to Harden 40 sec, Full Cure Not Specified, Peel Strength 13 psi, Shear Strength 350 psi, Tensile Strength 547 psi, Substrates Paper, Polyolefin, Fabric, Felt, Rigid Breadboard, ABS, PVC, Characteristics High Performance, Provides Fast and Strong Bonds to a Wide Variety of Materials, Remains Flexible, Economical and Efficient

3M 76 High Tack Spray, 24oz


3M 76 High Tack Spray, 24oz


$23.66


Spray Adhesive, Size (Oz.) 24, Net Weight (Oz.) 18.1, Temp. Range (F) 0 to 160, Bonding Range Up to 1 hr, Substrates Cardboard, Cork, Fabrics, Felt, Foils, Glass, Metal, Plastics, Rubber, Vinyl, Wood

3M 78I Spray Adhesive, For Polystyrene, 24 oz.


3M 78I Spray Adhesive, For Polystyrene, 24 oz.


$18.91


Spray Adhesive, Polystyrene Bonding, Inverted, Size (Oz.) 24, Net Weight (Oz.) 16.25, Temp. Range (F) 0 to 140, Application Time 1 to 5 min, Bonding Range 1 to 5 min, Substrates Wood, Metal, Glass, Ceramics, Leather, Felt, Fabric, Cardboard, Insulation, Paper, Bonding Insulation and Assembling Point-of-purchase Displays Make Out of Polystyrene, Can Be Sprayed Upsided Down, High Solids Aerosol Adhesive, Fast Drying Formula, High Coverage, Precise Spray Control with Variable Spray Pattern

3M HI-Strength 90 Spray Adhesive Low Voc 24 Ounce Can


3M HI-Strength 90 Spray Adhesive Low Voc 24 Ounce Can


$20.49


Spray Adhesive, Low VOC, Size (Oz.) 24, Net Weight (Oz.) 19, Temp. Range (F) -30 to 200 Degrees, Bonding Range 1 to 30 min, Substrates Kick Plates, Laminates, Polyethylene and Polypropylene, Wood, Metal, Glass, Ceramics, Leather, Felt, Fabric, Bonding, Attaching, Adhering, Fastening, Securing, Gluing, Tacking, Sticking and Hanging, Fast Drying, Clear Color, CARB/OTC/LEED Compliant

3M SCOTCH 70 Spray Adhesive, Cylinder


3M SCOTCH 70 Spray Adhesive, Cylinder


$383.76


Spray Adhesive, Cylinder, Net Weight (Oz.) 436.8, Bonding Range 1 to 60 min. (One Surface), Substrates EPDM Rubber, Fabric, Felt, Cork and Fibrous Glass, Flexible Foam (Latex, Urethane), Glass and Ceramics, Leather, Metal, Paper and Cardboard, Plastics (ABS, PVC, Acrylic), Plastics (Flexible Vinyl), Plastics (High Performance Nylon), Plastics (Polyolefin and Thermoplastic Elastomers), Rigid Foam (Beadboard Styrene), Rigid Foam (Urethane), Rubber (Except EPDM), Wood and Hardboard

3M SCOTCH 90 Spray Adhesive, Cylinder


3M SCOTCH 90 Spray Adhesive, Cylinder


$556.93


Spray Adhesive, Cylinder, Net Weight (Oz.) 460.8, Substrates EPDM Rubber, Fabric, Felt, Cork and Fibrous Glass, Flexible Foam (Latex, Urethane), Glass and Ceramics, Leather, Metal, Paper and Cardboard, Plastics (ABS, PVC, Acrylic), Plastics (Flexible Vinyl), Plastics (High Performance Nylon), Plastics (Polyolefin and Thermoplastic Elastomers), Rigid Foam (Urethane), Rubber (Except EPDM), Wood and Hardboard

3M SCOTCH 94CA Spray Adhesive, Cylinder


3M SCOTCH 94CA Spray Adhesive, Cylinder


$384.1


Spray Adhesive, Cylinder, Net Weight (Oz.) 419.2, Bonding Range 1 to 15 min. (One Surface), Substrates EPDM Rubber, Fabric, Felt, Cork and Fibrous Glass, Flexible Foam (Latex, Urethane), Glass and Ceramics, Leather, Metal, Paper and Cardboard, Plastics (ABS, PVC, Acrylic), Plastics (Flexible Vinyl), Plastics (High Performance Nylon), Plastics (Polyolefin and Thermoplastic Elastomers), Rigid Foam (Urethane), Rubber (Except EPDM), Wood and Hardboard

3M Scotch Printable Flatback Paper Tape - 1 Width x 60 yd Length - 3 Core - 6.70 mil - Rubber Backing - 1 / Roll - White


3M Scotch Printable Flatback Paper Tape – 1 Width x 60 yd Length – 3 Core – 6.70 mil – Rubber Backing – 1 / Roll – White


$28.58


Made with natural rubber, pressure-sensitive adhesive, this tape bonds to a wide variety of paper, film, fabric and yarn surfaces. It is printable with standard flexographic inks and is also easily marked with ballpoint pens, felt-tip pens, pencils and rubber stamps. The thick, flatback paper backing creates good paint lines when used for masking purposes. Use also for banding items where color-coding is required, last lap end-roll tabbing of paper, film, fabric and yarns and light to medium bundling applications. The tape detaches easily and provides clean removal from a variety of substrates.

3M SCOTCH SUPER 77 Spray Adhesive, Cylinder


3M SCOTCH SUPER 77 Spray Adhesive, Cylinder


$378.03


Spray Adhesive, Cylinder, Net Weight (Oz.) 468.8, Bonding Range 1 to 30 min. (One Surface), Substrates EPDM Rubber, Fabric, Felt, Cork and Fibrous Glass, Flexible Foam (Latex, Urethane), Glass and Ceramics, Leather, Metal, Paper and Cardboard, Plastics (ABS, PVC, Acrylic), Plastics (Flexible Vinyl), Plastics (High Performance Nylon), Plastics (Polyolefin and Thermoplastic Elastomers), Rigid Foam (Urethane), Rubber (Except EPDM), Wood and Hardboard

7510001614237 Stamp Pad Ink, Applicator Bottle, Black


7510001614237 Stamp Pad Ink, Applicator Bottle, Black


$10.99


Quick-drying ink is ideal for re-inking rubber stamp inkpads made of felt, fabric or foam material. Convenient bottle provides generous supply for easy re-inking with splatter-free, non-toxic ink. Ink Color(s): Black; Capacity (Volume): 2 oz.

7510001614240 Stamp Pad Ink, 2 Oz Bottle, Red


7510001614240 Stamp Pad Ink, 2 Oz Bottle, Red


$10.19


Quick-drying ink is ideal for re-inking rubber stamp inkpads made of felt, fabric or foam material. Convenient bottle provides generous supply for easy re-inking with splatter-free, non-toxic ink. Ink Color(s): Red; Capacity (Volume): 2 oz.

Aamo Cowboy Hat Crushabe Fet Keeneand Fabric 24070


Aamo Cowboy Hat Crushabe Fet Keeneand Fabric 24070


$90.34


Alamo Cowboy Hat Crushable Felt Keeneland Fabric L Brown 24070

Ah Goo Baby The Pacifier Clip, Earth PC-EARTH-12


Ah Goo Baby The Pacifier Clip, Earth PC-EARTH-12


$14.69


GOA1022: Features: -Matching patterns coordinate with all Ah Goo Baby product lines-Can be used to hold clean or dirty clothes, toys, and other small items-Removable inner liner for quick cleaning-Machine Washable and dryer safe (low heat)-Non-toxic and BPA-free PVC and fabrics-The clasp can connect to any fabric up to 1/8 inch thick, allowing it to connect to thin fabrics such as silk to thick fabrics such as jackets and other outerwear-On the pacifier connector end, The Pacifier Clip will work with any ring-type or slotted pacifier with an opening of 1/2 inch or larger. When developing The Pacifier Clip, we felt that the string-and-loop based connectors that were required to fit onto the. Specifications: -From end-to-end: 14 inches long x 3/4 inch wide. From the clasp end to the connector end: 7 1/2 inches (how long the pacifier will hang from where you connect it).

Alao Cowboy Hat Crushable Felt Keeneland Fabric 24070


Alao Cowboy Hat Crushable Felt Keeneland Fabric 24070


$90.34


Alamo Cowboy Hat Crushable Felt Keeneland Fabric M Brown 24070

Alcatraz High School Men's Men's Premium T-Shirt by Spreadshirt


Alcatraz High School Men’s Men’s Premium T-Shirt by Spreadshirt


$19.97


Men’s Premium T-Shirt – If you’ve ever felt like high school is prison, then this is the design for you! Cool distressed print design reads Property of Alcatraz High School – Home Of The Convicts! and shows an image of the famous island in San Francisco Bay. – This premium t-shirt is as close to perfect as can be. Its optimized for all types of print and will quickly become your favorite t-shirt. Soft, comfortable and durable, this is a definite must-own and a Spreadshirt recommended product. 100% cotton (heather gray is 95%/5% viscose) Fabric Weight: 5.29 oz (heavyweight) Wide range of sizes from S-5XL Fairly produced, certified and triple audited. Double stitched, reinforced seams at shoulder, sleeve, collar and waist Optimized for beautiful brilliance across all printing methods Imported; processed and printed in the U.S.A. + + + With hundreds of designs – Spreadshirt – is the online destination for your favorite tees. Many of our designs are available in mens, womens, youth, kids and baby sizes and come in a variety of different colors. Check our Rakuten store to see them all!

Alcatraz High School Men's Men's Premium T-Shirt by Spreadshirt


Alcatraz High School Men’s Men’s Premium T-Shirt by Spreadshirt


$19.97


Men’s Premium T-Shirt – If you’ve ever felt like high school is prison, then this is the design for you! Cool distressed print design reads Property of Alcatraz High School – Home Of The Convicts! and shows an image of the famous island in San Francisco Bay. – This premium t-shirt is as close to perfect as can be. Its optimized for all types of print and will quickly become your favorite t-shirt. Soft, comfortable and durable, this is a definite must-own and a Spreadshirt recommended product. 100% cotton (heather gray is 95%/5% viscose) Fabric Weight: 5.29 oz (heavyweight) Wide range of sizes from S-5XL Fairly produced, certified and triple audited. Double stitched, reinforced seams at shoulder, sleeve, collar and waist Optimized for beautiful brilliance across all printing methods Imported; processed and printed in the U.S.A. + + + With hundreds of designs – Spreadshirt – is the online destination for your favorite tees. Many of our designs are available in mens, womens, youth, kids and baby sizes and come in a variety of different colors. Check our Rakuten store to see them all!
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